An oncologist is a specialist who studies the causes of the occurrence and development of benign and malignant tumor formations. The oncologist’s competence includes diagnosis (including accurate differentiation), treatment of tumors, as well as the study of the possibilities of converting benign tumors into malignant ones.
Oncological diseases can affect all organs and tissues of the human body. They are localized initially in any one organ, but over time they spread and penetrate into any system, including the circulatory, lymphatic, and bone. Often, the primary stages of the disease can be asymptomatic, so there are a number of cases when an oncologist must be visited, even for no apparent reason.
In which cases to contact an oncologist
These symptoms may accompany tumor diseases at various stages of their development:
You have any signs of bleeding from internal organs – blood in the urine, in the bowel movements, frequent nosebleeds for no apparent reason, from the genitals.
There is significant weight loss without lifestyle changes.
There were any skin neoplasms, noticeable changes in moles, warts, polyps, etc., especially with bleeding.
Seals are felt in any part of the body, especially in the mammary glands. There is an increase and consolidation of lymph nodes in the neck, in the armpits, in the groin.
There is an unexplained and prolonged fever, pain, fever.
There are unexplained headaches, impaired vision, hearing or coordination.
Pathological discharge from the mammary glands and rectum, causeless disorders of the stool began;
You feel a sharp deterioration in well-being, weakness, decreased appetite, sometimes nausea in the normal state of the gastrointestinal tract;
There was a prolonged feeling of discomfort in any organ – tickling or squeezing in the throat, pressure in the sternum, abdominal cavity or pelvis.
When else is it necessary to contact an oncologist
An oncologist should be visited if:
You have been treated for any oncological disease – as a preventive observation at least once every six months or more often – on the recommendation of a doctor.
At least once every six months of the year, it is necessary to contact an oncologist for women after 40-45 years (it is recommended that those who have not given birth reduce this age by another 5 years), for men – after 45-50 years.
You have been diagnosed with the following diseases: intestinal polyposis, mastopathy, cirrhosis of the liver.
There are blood relatives in the family who suffer from oncological diseases.
You work in chemical production, or in any other environmentally unfavorable conditions (dust and gas pollution).
You are fond of tanning – both natural and in a solarium.
You smoke – it is recommended to contact an oncologist for examination at least once or twice a year, since the relationship between the frequency of cancer and smoking has been repeatedly proven by statistics.
Stages of consultation
Patients usually get to the oncologist in the direction of other specialists who suspected the presence of cancer in the patient.
The main task of the oncologist doctor is to identify the tumor during the examination and study its properties.
The initial examination includes:
collection of anamnesis, including family history, and clarification of complaints to compile a picture of the primary symptoms of the disease;
visual examination and palpation of problem areas of the body, as well as areas that may be prone to metastases;
the purpose of tests and instrumental studies to identify a specific type of tumor.
When a tumor is detected, a biopsy is performed — a research method that consists in taking biological material (cells or tissues) for histological analysis.
At the secondary appointment, the doctor examines the results of tests and studies, diagnoses and prescribes treatment.
In the future, oncologist consultations are conducted according to an individual schedule to track the dynamics of the therapy process or the results of the operation.